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The Science

Tonic Health uses the latest science to create high impact products for better immune health. Team Tonic aim to stay at the forefront of the latest clinical research and science in order to ensure our products deliver max strength immune support and maximum effectiveness for when you need it most.

Science is constantly evolving and to this day there is still more to understand and learn about the complexities of our immune system. Here is the list of science, journals, and articles that we have used to inform our product development and choices.

VITAMIN C+

Levy R., Schlaeffer F.Successful treatment of a patient with recurrent furunculosis by vitamin C : Improvement of clinical course and of impaired neutrophil functions.
Int. J. Dermatol. 1993;32:832–834

University of Helsinki."Larger doses of vitamin C may lead to a greater reduction in common cold duration."
ScienceDaily. 30 March 2017.
Sharma P., Raghavan S.A., Saini R., Dikshit M.
Ascorbate-mediated enhancement of reactive oxygen species generation from polymorphonuclear leukocytes : Modulatory effect of nitric oxide.
J. Leukoc. Biol

Mohammed B.M., Fisher B.J., Kraskauskas D., Farkas D., Brophy D.F., Fowler A.A., Natarajan R.Vitamin C: A novel regulator of neutrophil extracellular trap formation.
Nutrients. 2013;5:3131–3151

Kennes B., Dumont I., Brohee D., Hubert C., Neve P. Effect of vitamin C supplements on cell-mediated immunity in old people.
Gerontology. 1983;29:305–310 Hodges R.E., Hood J., Canham J.E., Sauberlich H.E., Baker E.M. Clinical manifestations of ascorbic acid deficiency in man.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1971;24:432–443 Hemila H. Vitamin C and Infections.
Nutrients. 2017;9:339

VITAMIN D+

LAAKSI I, ET AL. An association of serum vitamin D concentrations < 40 nmol/L with acute respiratory tract infection in young Finnish men.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(3):714–7

BIKLE D.Nonclassic actions of vitamin D. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.
2009;94(1):26–34.
BAEKE F, TAKIISHI T, KORF H, GYSEMANS C, MATHIEU C.
Vitamin D: modulator of the immune system.
(2010) 10:482–96

CHOTTKER B, JORDE R, PEASEY A, THORAND B, JANSEN EH, GROOT L, ET AL. Vitamin D and mortality: meta-analysis of individual participant data from a large consortium of cohort studies from Europe and the United States.
BMJ (2014) 348:g3656

LOUISE SAUL, IRIS MAIR, ALASDAIR IVENS, PAMELA BROWN, KAY SAMUEL, JOHN D. M. CAMPBELL, DANIEL Y. SOONG, NADINE KAMENJARIN, RICHARD J. MELLANBY. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Restrains CD4 T Cell Priming Ability of CD11c Dendritic Cells by Upregulating Expression of CD31.
Frontiers in Immunology, 2019; 10

Zinc+

Gammoh N.Z., Rink L.Zinc in infection and inflammation.
Nutrients. 2017;9

Jarosz M, Olbert M, Wyszogrodzka G, Młyniec K, Librowski T. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of zinc. Zinc-dependent NF-κB signaling. Inflammopharmacology.
2017 Feb;25(1):11-2
Yu M., Lee W.W., Tomar D., Pryshchep S., Czesnikiewicz-Guzik M., Lamar D.L., Li G., Singh K., Tian L., Weyand C.M., et al.
Regulation of T cell receptor signaling by activation-induced zinc influx.
J. Exp. Med. 2011;208:775–785.

Sunderman F.W., Jr.The influence of zinc on apoptosis.
Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci. 1995;25:134–142
Maggini S, Beveridge S, Suter M. A combination of high-dose vitamin C plus zinc for the common cold.
J Int Med Res. 2012;40(1):28-42

ELDER-BERRY+

Sidor A., Gramza-Michałowska A. Advanced research on the antioxidant and health benefit of elderberry (Sambucus nigra) in food—A review.
(Sambucus nigra) in food—A review. J. Funct. Foods. 2014;18B:941–958

Barak V, Halperin T, Kalickman I.The effect of Sambucol, a black elderberry-based, natural product, on the production of human cytokines: I. Inflammatory cytokines.
Eur Cytokine Netw. 2001 Apr-Jun;12(2):290-6
Vlachojannis JE, Cameron M, Chrubasik S.
A systematic review on the sambuci fructus effect and efficacy profiles.
Phytother Res. 2010 Jan;24(1):1-8

Elderberry Supplementation Reduces Cold Duration and Symptoms in Air-Travellers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.
Tiralongo E, Wee SS, Lea RA. Nutrients. 2016 Mar 24;8(4):182.

Randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry extract in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections.
Zakay-Rones Z, Thom E, Wollan T, Wadstein J. J Int Med Res. 2004 Mar-Apr;32(2):132-40.

GINGER+

Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of ginger in health and physical activity: review of current evidence.
Mashhadi NS, Ghiasvand R, Askari G, Hariri M, Darvishi L, Mofid MR. Int J Prev Med. 2013 Apr;4(Suppl 1):S36-42.

Connecting the immune system, systemic chronic inflammation and the gut microbiome: The role of sex.
Rizzetto L et al. J Autoimmun. (2018)

J Ethnopharmacol.
2006 Apr 21;105(1-2):301-5. Epub 2005 Dec 9.

The modulatory effects of the volatile oil of ginger on the cellular immune response in vitro and in vivo in mice.Zhou HLDeng YM, Xie QM


Tripathi, Sudipta; Bruch, David; Kittur, Dilip Ginger extract inhibits LPS induced macrophage activation and function
SBMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Jan 3, 2008, Vol. 8, 1

HONEY+

Wounds.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(3):714–7

Antiviral Activities of Honey, Royal Jelly, and Acyclovir Against HSV-1.
Hashemipour MA, Tavakolineghad Z, Arabzadeh SA , Iranmanesh Z, Nassab SA

J Contemp Dent Pract.
2017 Nov 1;18(11):1004-1008.

Antimicrobial Effect of Ginger, Garlic, Honey, and Lemon Extracts on Streptococcus mutans.Mathai K1,Anand S2,Aravind A3,Dinatius P4,Krishnan AV5,Mathai M
Frontiers in Immunology, 2019; 10

FASEB J.
2010 Jul;24(7):2576-82. doi: 10.1096/fj.09-150789. Epub 2010 Mar 12.
How honey kills bacteria.
Kwakman PH1,te Velde AA,de Boer L,Speijer D,Vandenbroucke-Grauls CM,Zaat SA

Tonks A. J., Dudley E., Porter N. G., et al. A 5.8-kDacomponent of manuka honey stimulates immune cells via TLR4.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 2007;82(5):1147–1155.
Tomblin V., Ferguson L. R., Han D. Y., Murray P., Schlothauer R.
Potential pathway of anti-inflammatory effect by New Zealand honeys.
International Journal of General Medicine. 2014;7:149–158

BLACK-CURRANT+

Berry anthocyanins suppress the expression and secretion of proinflammatory mediators in macrophages by inhibiting nuclear translocation of NF-κB independent of NRF2-mediated mechanism.
Lee SG, Kim B, Yang Y, Pham TX, Park YK, Manatou J, Koo SI, Chun OK, Lee JY. J Nutr Biochem. 2014 Apr;25(4)

Lyall, K. A., Hurst, S.M.,Cooney, J.,Jensen, D.,Lo, K., Hurst, R.D., Stevenson L. M. Short-term blackcurrant extract consumption modulates exercise-induced oxidative stress and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory responses.
AM J PHYSIOL REGUL INTEGR COMP PHYSIOL 2009, 297: 70-81

Anti-influenza virus activity of two extracts of the blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) from New Zealand and Poland.
Ikuta K, Mizuta K, Suzutani T. Fukushima J Med Sci. 2013;59(1):35-8

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